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These are the 44 children killed by Iran's security forces

The Iranian authorities’ unrelenting brutal crackdown on an ongoing popular uprising against the Islamic Republic system has involved an all-out attack on child protesters who have courageously taken to the streets in search of a future without political oppression and inequality. According to Amnesty International since the eruption of the uprising on 16 September 2022, Iran’s security forces have killed with absolute impunity at least 44 children and injured many more in a bid to crush the spirit of resistance among the country’s youth and retain their iron grip on power at any cost.


These are the 44 children killed by Iran's security forces since September 2022 according to Amnesty International.



ALBORZ PROVINCE


1. SARINA ESMAILZADEH


Sarina Esmailzadeh was killed at the age of 16 during the protests in the neighbourhood of Gohardasht in Karaj, Alborz province, on 23 September. According to information received from a primary source in Iran, security forces fatally struck her head with batons and subsequently subjected the girl’s family to intense harassment and intimidation to coerce them into silence. The authorities did not allow the family to see the body of Sarina Esmailzadeh after her death; they brought the body to the burial site while wrapped in a white shroud and forced the family to immediately bury it. Security and intelligence agents had a heavy presence at her memorial ceremony, intimidating bereaved relatives and other mourners.


On 7 October, after her death received a lot of media attention in Iran and globally, triggering a public outcry, the head of the department of justice in Alborz province, Hossein Fazeli, claimed that Sarina Esmailzadeh had committed suicide by jumping from a rooftop.


The next day, Tasnim News Agency, a state media outlet affiliated with the Revolutionary Guards, aired a short interview with Sarina Esmailzadeh’s mother, which showed her repeating the official narrative that her daughter had not been involved in the protests and had died as a result of suicide. However, the same day, Radio Farda, an independent media outlet outside Iran, quoted a relative of Sarina Esmailzadeh saying that the Revolutionary Guards agents had subjected her mother to extreme intimidation and harassment in order to coerce her into reiterating the official narrative. On 12 October, Radio Farda reported, citing primary sources in Iran, that intelligence and security agents have threatened to kill or otherwise harm Sarina Esmailzadeh’s surviving brother if the family does not publicly reiterate the official narrative. They have also instructed the family to file complaints against any person or entity disputing the narrative that she died as a result of suicide. Radio Farda further revealed that the authorities had conditioned the return of Sarina Esmailzadeh’s body on her family publicly accepting the authorities’ bogus narrative.


Source: Individuals directly impacted



2. MEHDI HAZRATI


Security forces fatally shot Mehdi Hazrati, aged 17, in the head with live ammunition in Karaj, Alborz province. According to information gathered by Amnesty International, he was killed on 3 November during protests marking the 40th day commemoration ceremony (chehelom) of Hadis Najafi, a young woman protester killed earlier in the uprising. A video of the immediate aftermath of his fatal shooting, published on social media in the days following his death, shows his lifeless lying in a pool of blood on the ground while surrounded by dozens of members of security forces, mostly uniformed agents from the Special Forces unit (yegah-e vijeh) of Iran’s police and at least two men in plain clothes.


Consistent with long-standing patterns of denial, the head of the department of justice of Alborz province, Hossein Fazeli Harikandi, confirmed that Mehdi Hazrati was fatally shot in the forehead during the protests of 3 November in Karaj, which he described as “riots”. However, he denied the responsibility of police officials claiming that “they did not have firearms” at the time of the incident and that the relevant prosecution authorities opened investigations to determine “the suspicious circumstances surrounding the shooting of this individual.”


Source: Activists and journalists and state officials



KERMANSHAH


3. AMIR HOSSEIN BASATI


Security forces killed Amir Hossein Basati, a 15-year-old boy from Iran’s Kurdish minority, on 21 September during protests in the neighborhood of Kashikari in Kermanshah, Kermanshah province. A human rights defender outside Iran shared with Amnesty International a written account from an eyewitness who said Amir Hossein Basati died immediately after riot police fired at him from a close range. The organization also reviewed a video of the victim lying face down on the ground while bleeding from his back and face. A human rights defender told Amnesty International that Amir Hossein Basati’s family was given no information about his fate and whereabouts for several days until they saw the video online. They

subsequently discovered the body of Amir Hossein Basati in a Kermanshah hospital morgue.


In a report, seen by Amnesty International and distributed by the Iranian authorities to member states of the UN Human Rights Council ahead of the Special Session on Iran held on 24 November in Geneva, it is confirmed that, according to the Legal Medicine Organization, the state forensic institute, Amir Hossein Basati died from “a gunshot wound” sustained during protests in Kermanshah, described as “riots”. However, the authorities claimed that “it has hitherto not been identified that the deceased was shot by whom, or how he has lost his life. Therefore, investigations are underway to clarify and bring to light the dimensions of the incident.”


Source: Activists and journalists


4. BAHAODDIN VEISI


Revolutionary Guards agents fatally shot Bahaoddin Veisi, a 16-year-old boy from Iran’s Kurdish minority, with live ammunition during a violent crackdown on protests in Javanroud, Kermanshah province, on 20 November. According to a local journalist who spoke to a relative of Bahaoddin Veisi and several other informed sources, Bahaoddin Veisi was in a car with his brother, Najmoddin Veisi, and two friends when Revolutionary Guards fired toward their car. The shooting took place as the brothers and their friends were returning from a demonstration held in front of a hospital in Javanroud to which a schoolteacher killed earlier in the evening, Erfan Kakaie, had been taken. Najmoddin Veisi had published a story on his Instagram account earlier that


evening calling on people to gather in front of the hospital to prevent security forces from removing the body of Erfan Kakaie.


Bahaoddin Veisi died from his gunshot wounds shortly after he was taken to a hospital. Amnesty International reviewed a video shared by human rights defenders which shows attempts to resuscitate Bahaoddin Veisi at the hospital. His brother Najmoddin Veisi was taken to a detention centre where he was denied access to medical care for his injuries, sustained when the car in which they were travelling came under fire. Revolutionary Guards agents conditioned Najmoddin Veisi’s release on his family burying Bahaoddin Veisi without a public funeral. A human rights defender told Amnesty International that while in detention, the authorities also forced Najmoddin Veisi to give a statement denying that Revolutionary Guards agents killed his brother and attributing the responsibility to Kurdish opposition groups. Local sources have reported seeing the car in which the Veisi brothers and their friends were travelling in the parking lot of the headquarters of the Revolutionary Guards in Javanroud.


The killing of Bahaoddin Veisi sparked further mass protests in Javanroud on 21 November, which were again met with unlawful use of firearms resulting in the death of at least five further men. Amnesty International has reviewed videos from 21 November in Javanroud, which feature repeated sounds of gunfire.


Source: Activists and journalists


KHORASAN-E RAZAVI


5. ABOLFAZL ADINEHZADEH


Security forces fired dozens of metal pellets at Abolfazl Adinehzadeh, aged 17, at close range during a violent crackdown on protests in Mashhad, Khorasan-e Razavi province, on 8 October. His burial certificate, which has been reviewed by Amnesty International, states that he was “hit by metal pellets (hunting birdshot)” and that his death resulted from “kidney and liver damage” and “trauma caused by bleeding”.


According to an article published by the BBC, Abolfazl Adinehzadeh’s family had no information about his fate and whereabouts until an official of the ministry of education called them on 9 October and instructed them go to a police station to collect his body. At the police station, the authorities warned the family against speaking to media outlets saying “you must zip your mouth”. According to the same BBC article, they also put the family under pressure to say that their son was a member of the Basij and killed by protesters.


Abolfazl Adinehzadeh’s funeral ceremony was held under the surveillance of security and intelligence officials who harassed mourners and forced some of them to delete the videos that they filmed of the funeral ceremony.


In a video filmed during his memorial service and released publicly, Abolfazl Adinehzadeh’s father said, “What crime did my son commit that you fired 24 pellets into his stomach. I want [the authorities] to identify his murderer for me. Does the person who [killed my son] not have a child? Is he not really a human? I am pleading for anyone with videos of the moment [my son was killed] to send them to us. I express my gratitude to those people who came and gave us their condolences. Everyone burned with grief today, especially the young people, the students who were classmates of my son. The public were crying for my child. I want to know who his murderer is.”


Source: Individuals directly impacted


6. ALI MOZAFFARI


Ali Mozaffari, aged 17, was killed on 21 September during protests in Ghouchan, Khorasan-e Razavi province. A local source with first-hand information reported that security forces shot him in the stomach, and he died shortly afterwards. Amnesty International reviewed a video which circulated online on 21 September and wherein the person filming is heard saying that people in Ghouchan have come under live fire. The video shows protesters carrying a wounded person in their arms while the person filming says the victim was shot and killed with live ammunition.

Source: Individuals directly impacted



KHUZESTAN


7. KIAN PIRFALAK


Plainclothes security officials fatally shot Kian Pirfalak, aged nine, with live ammunition during protests that were taking place in Izeh, Khuzestan province, on 16 November. Security forces fired toward the car in which he was travelling with his family, fatally wounding him. The authorities blamed the incident on “terrorists”.


During Kian Pirfalak’s funeral service on 18 November, his mother, Zeinab Molaierad, publicly described the details of the fatal incident emphasizing that she wanted people to hear the truth directly from her: “Hear it from me about how the shooting happened so they [the authorities] can't say it was by terrorists, because they're lying.”

Zeinab Molaierad described that they were on their way to their house in Izeh when they reached an intersection where the office of the Red Crescent in Izeh is located and where large numbers of riot police and plainclothes officials had been stationed. She said an official ordered them to stop and turn around after they passed the security forces. Kian Pirfalak’s father, who was driving, heeded the order, but suddenly several plainclothes officials opened fire at the car. As a result, Kian Pirfalak sustained fatal gunshot wounds and his father was severely injured.


Zeinab Molaierad said that amid the shootings, she opened the front passenger’s car door, loudly alerted the officials that her children were in the car and asked them to stop. Three of the plainclothes officials responsible for the shootings then walked to the family, removed Kian Pirfalak’s wounded body from the car and took him into the building of the Red Crescent. Zeinab Molaierad said, “I don’t know why [the officials shot at us] ...They bombarded the car with bullets...I told the kids to hide under the seats. My younger child hid under the car’s dashboard, but Kian was chubby and didn’t go under the seat.”


The death of Kian Pirfalak sparked an outpouring of rage and solidarity, particularly after a video went viral that showed him opening a school presentation with the words “in name of a God of Rainbow” and then testing a boat made up of ice cream sticks.


The same evening Kian Pirfalak was fatally shot, state officials including Valiollah Hayati, the Deputy Governor of Khuzestan Province for Law Enforcement and Security Affairs, claimed that “terrorist agents” were responsible for the incident. In the next two days, other officials including the Governor of Khuzestan province, Sadegh Khalilian, the head of the department of justice in Khuzestan province, Ali Dehghani, and a deputy of the president, Mohsen Rezaiee, claimed that up to 11 “terrorist agents” had been arrested in connection with the events in Izeh. Officials claimed that some of them were identified while attempting to flee Iran through the border near Makou in West Azerbaijan province.


On 19 November, the day after Zeinab Molaierad shared her moving testimony at her son’s funeral, the Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting corporation (IRIB) aired an interview with Zeinab Molaierad in which she asked people “not to exploit my words”. She also said that “many [officials] have promised to investigate the matter to ensure that the person [responsible for Kian Pirfalak’s death] is executed”. The content of her statements and the distressed manner in which she expressed herself raises serious concerns that she was coerced into appearing on camera for the interview. In an interview with a national newspaper, Etemad, on 19 November, Kian Pirfalak’s uncle emphasized that Zeinab Molaierad clearly described her eyewitness testimony before thousands of people during the funeral ceremony.


On 4 December, a hacktivist group by the name of Black Reward obtained a classified audio file from a top-level meeting among several officials, which further brought into question the state narrative concerning the arrests carried out in connection to the incident in Izeh. Black Reward obtained the audio file after hacking the website of Fars News Agency, which is affiliated with the Revolutionary Guards. In the audio file, Reza Davari, the secretary general of a political faction close to the Supreme Leader, is heard saying that contrary to the claims made, those arrested were not related to the incident in Izeh and the person purportedly arrested in Makou was in fact an arms smuggler.


Source: Individuals directly impacted


8. ARTIN RAHMANI


Security officials fatally shot Artin Rahmani during protests that were taking place in Izeh, Khuzestan province, on 16 November. Some state media articles have said he was aged 13 while others have reported his age as 16. On the same evening, security forces unlawfully killed six other people, including two children, Kian Pirfalak, aged nine, and Sepehr Maghsoudi, aged 14. The authorities immediately blamed “terrorists” for the seven killings. However, other information obtained from publicly available materials has exposed the official narrative as false.

Prior to his death and after the protests have erupted, Artin Rahmani had written a diary entry reviewed by Amnesty International, addressed to his

mother, which said: “Forgive me, mother. I want to step onto a path which could mean that you may not see me grow up.”

Source: State media; Activists and journalists

Source: Individuals directly impacted



9. SEPEHR MAGHSOUDI


Security forces fatally shot Sepehr Maghsoudi, aged 14, in the head with live ammunition during protests in Izeh, Khuzestan province, on 16 November. Two hours after his body was transferred to a morgue, security forces removed his body without the family's knowledge. When his family sought information on the whereabouts of his body, the authorities told them that his body would not be handed over to the grieving family to avoid “a reaction from the public”. On the same evening, security forces unlawfully killed six other people, including two children, Kian Pirfalak, aged nine, and Artin Rahmani (See No.8). The authorities immediately blamed “terrorists” for the seven killings. However, other publicly available information has exposed the official narrative as false.


KURDISTAN


10. SARINA SAEDI


Sarina Saedi, a 15-year-old girl from Iran’s Kurdish minority, was killed after sustaining fatal injuries during the protests in Sanandaj, Kurdistan province, on 27 October. According to information received from a primary source, she had taken part in protests in Sanandaj on the evening of 26 October, during which security forces beat her on the head with batons, leaving her severely injured. After she returned home that night, she went to sleep. Her family found her irresponsive and lifeless in her bed the next day, and rushed her to a hospital in Sanandaj where doctors run tests and said that she had suffered a brain haemorrhage and declared her dead.


Security forces present in the hospital warned the family not to speak to the media and to attribute her death to suicide. They detained the family for several hours, until 2am, and then transferred them and Sarina Saedi’s body to Behesht Mohammadi Cemetery in Sanandaj where they buried her without allowing a funeral ceremony in the middle of the night.


As with similar cases attracting significant domestic and global media attention, the authorities immediately propagated bogus narratives about Sarina Saedi’s death in order to absolve themselves of responsibility. Without carrying out an out impartial and full investigation, they began a propaganda campaign to construct a narrative that she had mental health problems, had attempted suicide and self-harmed, while pressuring her family to publicly align themselves with the official state narrative.


On 29 October, two days after Sarina Saedi’s death, the Sanandaj Governor, Hasan Askari, announced that: “Preliminary investigations show that the cause of death was the accidental use of drugs or psychedelics or suicide.” On the same day, a state media outlet, Tasmin News Agency, quoted her father saying: “Preliminary investigations show that the cause of death was the accidental use of drugs or psychedelics or suicide.” His repetition of the official phrasing verbatim provides a strong indication Sarina Saedi’s father was interviewed under duress and told what to say.


On the same day, 29 October, state media also broadcast a video in which Sarina Saedi’s visibly distressed father was being questioned by several reporters about the cause of her death and her activities in the days leading up to it. When questioned whether she had left her home in the two days prior to her death, her father replied in the negative. During the same media appearance, he stated that the doctors said: “She committed suicide. There is a 90% probability that she committed suicide. She poisoned herself, but it is unclear what she ingested.”


In addition to pressuring Sarina’s Saedi’s grieving family to publicly accept the official narrative, state media reporters also interviewed a neighbour and a member of staff from her school, in what appeared to be a desperate attempt to back up their false narrative around her presence at home in the days leading her death and her mental health.


Source: Individuals directly impacted



11. DANIAL PABANDI


Security forces fatally shot Danial Pabandi, a 17-year-old boy from Iran’s Kurdish minority, with live ammunition during protests in Saqqez, Kurdistan province, on 16 November. On 17 November, a human rights defender posted on twitter a video of Danial Pabandi’s father wherein he says paramilitary Basiji agents shot his son in the back. The father adds that based on information reported by those present at the scene of the incident, the Basiji agents fired at his son from an unlicenced vehicle.


According to an article published by an independent media outlet outside Iran, Iran Wire, an eyewitness reported that Danial Pabandi was on a motorcycle when he was shot. Iran Wire further reports that the Governor of Saqqez, a judicial official, two police chiefs, and a security agent held a meeting with the family of Danial Pabandi at the office of the director of Tamin Ejtemaie hospital in Saqqez in order to pressure them to stay silent. According to a medical source quoted by Iran Wire, the Governor told the family, “Your innocent child was killed, just like those killed in Sistan and Baluchestan”, suggesting that non-state actors were responsible for his death. The Governor added that as with the victims in Sistan and Baluchestan, Danial Pabandi would be considered a “martyr” on condition that his family conducts the funeral service quietly. Families of deceased individuals officially classified as “martyrs” are granted certain privileges in Iran including financial compensation and/or state pension. According to Iran Wire, officials forced Danial Pabandi’s family to bury him in the early hours of the morning on 18 November and denied the family the right to wash and prepare him for burial in accordance with their own religious and cultural traditions.


Source: Activists and journalists


MAZANDARAN


12. SINA LOH MOUSAVI


Security forces fatally shot Sina Loh Mousavi, with live ammunition during a violent crackdown on protests in Amol, Mazandaran province, on 21 September. According to information gathered by Amnesty International, he was either 15 or 16 years old.


Amnesty International obtained a detailed testimony from a source with close links to security forces who witnessed how, on 21 September, riot police and Revolutionary Guard agents, respectively, fired birdshot and live ammunition from a distance of 10-15 metres at protesters gathered in front of the Office of the Governor in Amol. The source stated that as a result, Sina Loh Mousavi, two men and one woman were killed and several other people were injured.


The abovementioned eyewitness stressed that people participating in the protest of 21 September in Amol did not wield firearms and did not pose an imminent threat of death or serious injury to anyone when the Revolutionary Guards and riot police stationed in the Office of the Governor started firing live ammunition from around 7:30pm onwards. According to the source, the Revolutionary Guards agents approached protesters from behind and fired their weapons repeatedly and randomly, including when protesters were running away seeking safety. The source acknowledged that about an hour before the Revolutionary Guards agents used live ammunition, some incidents involving stone throwing and physical fighting between some protesters and security forces had occurred and that during these confrontations, at least two officials who were involved in the crackdown were stabbed and some others were otherwise harmed. He noted that the confrontations began after security forces beat peaceful protesters with batons in an effort to disperse them. He added that the subsequent use of firearms was not related to these incidents nor directed against those who may have still posed a threat of stabbing security officials and was instead carried out for the apparent purpose of dispersing the protests and preventing people from entering the Office of the Governor.


Amnesty International has obtained a leaked document which records that, on 23 September, the commander of armed forces in Mazandaran province ordered security forces stationed in central areas to “confront mercilessly ... any unrest by rioters and anti-Revolutionaries” instructing to “go as far as causing deaths.”


Source: Individuals directly impacted



13. ABOLFAZL BAHOU


Security forces shot and killed Abolfazl Bahou with live ammunition during a violent crackdown on protests in Ghaem Shahr, Mazandaran province, on 20 September. Some sources have reported his age as 13 and others as 17. The authorities returned his body to his family on the condition that they remain silent about his death and bury him quickly.


Source: Activists and journalists



SISTAN AND BALUCHESTAN


BLOODY FRIDAY OF 30 SEPTEMBER

Amnesty International has recorded the unlawful killing of 80 protesters, bystanders and worshipper, including 13 children, by security forces during a deadly crackdown on protests that took place on 30 September in Zahedan, Sistan and Baluchistan province.

On 30 September, protests were scheduled to take place after Friday prayers as a show of solidarity with nationwide protests and to demand accountability for the reported rape of a 15-year-old girl by a police commander in the province. Based on information obtained by Amnesty International from dozens of victims’ relatives and eyewitnesses, the protests started after a group of people finished praying in the Great Mosalla of Zahedan, a large prayer site near the city’s main mosque, Makki Mosque, and gathered outside the police station across the road, which is called Kalantari No. 16. In response, security forces started firing live ammunition, metal pellets and teargas at protesters and bystanders from the police station rooftop. Simultaneously, security forces in plainclothes fired at protesters and bystanders from the rooftops of several nearby houses, as corroborated by photographs shared by activists. Security forces also unlawfully fired live ammunition, metal pellets and teargas directly into the vicinity of the Mosalla, where hundreds of people, including children and older people, were still performing Friday prayers. The crackdown left at least nine boys and one girl dead whose names and details are listed below.


Later in the day, security forces including Revolutionary Guards and Basiji agents fired live ammunition to suppress further protests that erupted in other nearby areas of Zahedan including Shirabad and Kawsar. During these incidents, at least three further children were killed.


LACK OF OFFICIAL RECORDS


In a report the Iranian authorities distributed to member states of the UN Human Rights Council ahead of the Special Session on Iran on 24 November, they claimed that “there is no death record” for nine of the Baluchi children recorded by Amnesty International as having been killed by Iran’s security forces during the mass killings of “Bloody Friday” on 30 September in Zahedan, Sistan and Baluchestan province.39 They are Jaber Shiroozehi (No. 15); Javad Pousheh (No. 16); Mohammad Amin Gamshadzehi (No. 17); Mohammad Rakhshani (No. 24); Omid Safarzehi (No. 25); Samer Hashemzehi (No. 18); Sodeys Keshani (No. 19); Yaser Shahouzehi (No. 20); and Ali Barahouie (No. 21).


Amnesty International has confirmed that of these nine children, one, Samer Hashemzehi, had a national identification booklet (shenasnameh),40 which was annulled after he died, and an official death certificate was issued to his family. The national identification booklet is a document that records the date and location of the carrier’s birth, and which must be formally annulled when an individual dies. This brings into question the official claim that there is no death record for Samer Hashemzehi.


With respect to one of the other children, Omid Safarzehi, Amnesty International has learned that due to entrenched discrimination and marginalization, he did not have a national identification booklet (shenasnameh). State officials have previously admitted that thousands of people in the impoverished province of Sistan and Baluchestan do not have such identity documents. Amnesty International has further learned that Omid Safarzehi’s family buried him informally and without obtaining a burial certificate shortly after he was killed. In Iran, in all cases where deaths may have been due to unnatural causes, burial certificates must be issued by the Legal Medicine Organization of Iran, the state forensic institute, and record the dates of birth and death, as well as the cause of death. Under Iran’s laws and regulations, in such cases, burials may take place only after the Legal Medicine Organization of Iran conducts an autopsy and issues a burial certificate.41 However, Amnesty International understands that due to entrenched discrimination and marginalization in Sistan and Baluchestan province, burials are frequently carried out in this province informally and without burial certificates. Amnesty International is concerned that the authorities are seeking to exploit this context of discrimination and absence of official records to further obfuscate the truth and erase the trace of unlawful killing committed by security forces against Baluchi children and their families.


Amnesty International has not been able to determine whether or not the remaining seven Baluchi children, whose deaths were questioned by the Iranian authorities, had a national identification booklet (shenasnameh), but fears that the concerns raised in the case of Omid Safarzehi may similarly apply to these children.



14. MOHAMMAD EGHBAL SHAHNAVAZI (NAYEBZEHI)


Security forces fatally shot Mohammad Eghbal Shahnavazi (Nayebzehi), a 17-year-old boy from Iran’s long-oppressed Baluchi minority, with live ammunition on 30 September during a violent crackdown on a protest in Zahedan, Sistan and Baluchistan province, which took place after Friday prayers outside a police station opposite a large prayer site (see the introduction of Section 7 “Sistan and Baluchistan” above for the details of this incident).


The distressed family of Mohammad Eghbal Shahnavazi searched for their son at multiple hospitals in Zahedan on September 30 after a local resident informed them that he had been shot. They reported witnessing hundreds of wounded people at the emergency and accident department of Khatamolanbia hospital. After several hours of searching, they found Mohammad Eghbal Shahnavazi’s body in a room in the city’s main mosque, Makki Mosque, to which the bodies of several victims had been moved. The family saw gunshot wounds including a gaping hole in the chest of Mohammad Eghbal Shahnavazi. Amnesty International reviewed footage from the aforesaid room, which shows the corpses of Mohammad Eghbal Shahnavazi and other victims on the ground with extremely distressed people around them.


The family of Mohammad Eghbal Shahnavazi were forced to wait in the mosque for several hours for the shootings to end and they then took his body home. At their home, they covered the body in ice while they sought assistance to dig a grave in Lar cemetery in Zahedan, where they buried him the next day. Amnesty International understands that due to the lack of public services in Sistan and Baluchistan province, the practice of burying the dead informally and without obtaining a burial certificate is common. In the rest of Iran, the authorities have put in place various regulations and procedures that ensure no burials may take place until a burial certificate has been issued by the Legal Medicine Organization of Iran, the state forensic institute. Burial certificates record the dates of birth and death, as well as the cause of death.


According to Mohammad Eghbal Shahnavazi’s family, he was born on 9 January 2005, but those preparing his gravestone mistakenly wrote his year of birth as 2004. As with thousands of other people in the impoverished province of Sistan and Baluchistan, Mohammad Eghbal Shahnavazi did not have a national identification booklet (shenasnameh).


Source: Individuals directly impacted



15. JABER SHIROOZEHI

Security forces killed Jaber Shiroozehi, a 12-year-old boy from Iran’s long-oppressed Baluchi minority, with live ammunition on 30 September during a violent crackdown on a protest in Zahedan, Sistan and Baluchistan province, which took place after Friday prayers outside a police station opposite a large prayer site (see the introduction of Section 7 “Sistan and Baluchistan” above for the details of this incident). According to information obtained by human rights activists, security forces shot Jaber Shiroozehi in the head.


In a report the Iranian authorities distributed to member states of the UN Human Rights Council ahead of the Special Session on Iran on 24 November, the authorities of the Islamic Republic of Iran claimed that “there is no death record” for Jaber Shiroozehi before the Legal Medicine Organization of Iran, which they said “is the official authority for confirming the type or cause of death.”43 The authorities added that “investigations are underway to clarify and bring to light the issue.” As such, the authorities not only refused to address the causes and circumstances surrounding his unlawful killing, but even sought to question his death (see Section 7.2 “Lack of official records” above for more information on this concern).


Source: Activists and journalists



16. JAVAD POUSHEH


Security forces killed Javad Pousheh, an 11-year-old boy from Iran’s long-oppressed Baluchi minority, with live ammunition on 30 September during a violent crackdown on a protest in Zahedan, Sistan and Baluchistan province, which took place after Friday prayers outside a police station opposite a large prayer site (see the introduction of Section 7 “Sistan and Baluchistan” above for the details of this incident).Shocking videos filmed immediately after Javad Pousheh’s death show his bloodied body being carried amid chaotic scenes of people screaming; multiple men are heard stating: “They have hit a child”. Other audio-visual evidence provided to Amnesty International and analyzed by the organization’s weapons expert reveals what appear to be wounds on the left side of the back of his head and his right cheek leaving a large gaping hole. According to a primary source interviewed by Amnesty International, he was shot in the back of his head with live ammunition by security forces and the bullet exited through his cheek.


Despite such evidence, in a report distributed among member states of the UN Human Rights Council, the authorities of the Islamic Republic of Iran claimed that “there is no death record” for Javad Pousheh before the Legal Medicine Organization of Iran, which they said “is the official authority for confirming the type or cause of death.” The authorities added that “investigations are underway to clarify and bring to light the issue.” As such, the authorities not only refused to address the causes and circumstances surrounding his unlawful killing, but even sought to question his death (see Section 7.2 “Lack of official records” above).


Source: Individuals directly impacted



17. MOHAMMAD AMIN GAMSHADZEHI

Security forces killed Mohammad Amin Gamshadzehi, a 17-year-old boy from Iran’s long- oppressed Baluchi minority, with live ammunition on 30 September during a violent crackdown on a protest in Zahedan, Sistan and Baluchistan province, which took place after Friday prayers outside a police station opposite a large prayer site (see the introduction of Section 7 “Sistan and Baluchistan” above for the details of this incident).

According to a primary source, he had just finished Friday prayers and was walking to his home nearby when security forces shot him in the heart just outside the prayer site.


In a report distributed among member states of the UN Human Rights Council, the authorities of the Islamic Republic of Iran claimed that “there is no death record” for Mohammad Amin Gamshadzehi before the Legal Medicine Organization of Iran (LMOI), which they said “is the official authority for confirming the type or cause of death.” The authorities added that “investigations are underway to clarify and bring to light the issue.” As such, the authorities not only refused to address the causes and circumstances surrounding his unlawful killing, but even sought to question his death (see Section 7.2 “Lack of official records” above for more information on this concern).


Source: Individuals directly impacted



18. SAMER HASHEMZEHI


Security forces killed Samer Hashemzehi, a 16-year-old boy from Iran’s long-oppressed Baluchi minority, with live ammunition on 30 September during a violent crackdown on a protest in Zahedan, Sistan and Baluchistan province, which took place after Friday prayers outside a police station opposite a large prayer site (see the introduction of Section 7 “Sistan and Baluchistan” above for the details of this incident).


According to a primary source, he had just finished Friday prayers and was walking to his home when security forces shot him the back of his head. Amnesty International has reviewed pictures and videos, which show Samer Hashemzehi lying lifeless on the ground while bleeding heavily from his head. Distressed protesters and bystanders are seen in the video gathering around Samer Hashemzehi while chanting “Allah Akbar” in shock and outrage.


Despite this audiovisual evidence, which has widely circulated online, the authorities of the Islamic Republic of Iran claimed in a report to member states of the UN Human Rights Council they distributed in the lead up to the Special Session on Iran on 24 November that “there is no death record” for Samer Hashemzehi before the Legal Medicine Organization of Iran (LMOI), which they said “is the official authority for confirming the type or cause of death.” The authorities added that “investigations are underway to clarify and bring to light the issue.” As such, the authorities suggested that Samer Hashemzehi’s death cannot be confirmed, let alone the causes and circumstances surrounding it.


While the authorities denied any knowledge of Samer Hashemzehi’s death at the international level, Amnesty International has learned that in Zahedan, authorities affiliated with security and intelligence bodies forced Samer Hashemzehi’s family to sign and fingerprint a statement, declaring that they have no complaints against the security forces. They also forced Samer Hashemzehi’s family to accept a death certificate which cited his cause of death as “natural”. The authorities threatened Samer Hashemzehi’s family that they would not be allowed to collect the body of Samer Hashemzehi and bury him in their chosen burial site in Taftan called Nout Abad if they refuse to “cooperate”.


According to information obtained by Amnesty International including eyewitness accounts and audiovisual evidence, on 7 October 2022, security forces in Taftan repeatedly fired live ammunition into the air to suppress a mourning ceremony held for Samer Hashemzehi.


Source: Individuals directly impacted



19. SODEYS KESHANI



Security forces killed Sodeys Keshani, a 14-year-old boy from Iran’s long-oppressed Baluchi minority, with live ammunition on 30 September during a violent crackdown on a protest in Zahedan, Sistan and Baluchistan province, which took place after Friday prayers outside a police station opposite a large prayer site (see the introduction of Section 7 “Sistan and Baluchistan” above for the details of this incident).


According to information sent by local residents to Baluchi human rights activists, security forces shot Sodeys Keshani in his head and heart.


The authorities of the Islamic Republic of Iran claimed in a report to member states of the UN Human Rights Council distributed ahead of the Special Session on Iran on 24 November that “there is no death record” for Sodeys Keshani before the Legal Medicine Organization of Iran, which they said “is the official authority for confirming the type or cause of death.” The authorities added that “investigations are underway to clarify and bring to light the issue.” As such, the authorities not only refused to address the causes and circumstances surrounding his unlawful killing, but even sought to question his death (see Section 7.2 “Lack of official records” above for more information on this concern).


Source: Activists and journalists



20. YASER SHAHOUZEHI

Security forces killed Yaser Shahouzehi, a 16-year-old boy from Iran’s long-oppressed Baluchi minority, with live ammunition on 30 September during a violent crackdown on a protest in Zahedan, Sistan and Baluchistan province, which took place after Friday prayers outside a police station opposite a large prayer site (see the introduction of Section 7 “Sistan and Baluchistan” above for the details of this incident). According to information obtained by human rights activists, security forces shot Yaser Shahouzehi in his heart.


The authorities of the Islamic Republic of Iran claimed in a report to member states of the UN Human Rights Council distributed ahead of the Special Session on Iran on 24 November that “there is no death record” for Yaser Shahouzehi before the Legal Medicine Organization of Iran, which they said “is the official authority for confirming the type or cause of death.” The authorities added that “investigations are underway to clarify and bring to light the issue.” As such, the authorities not only refused to address the causes and circumstances surrounding his unlawful killing, but even sought to question his death (see Section 7.2 “Lack of official records” above for more information on this concern).


Source: Activists and journalists



21. ALI BARAHOUIE


Security forces killed Ali Barahouie, a 14-year-old boy from Iran’s long-oppressed Baluchi minority, with live ammunition on 30 September during a violent crackdown on a protest in Zahedan, Sistan and Baluchistan province, which took place after Friday prayers outside a police station opposite a large prayer site (see the introduction of Section 7 “Sistan and Baluchistan” above for the details of this incident). According to human rights activists, he was shot in the neck and chest while he was still inside the Mosalla prayer site.


The authorities of the Islamic Republic of Iran claimed in a report to member states of the UN Human Rights Council distributed in the lead up to the Special Session on Iran on 24 November that “there is no death record” for Ali Barahouie before the Legal Medicine Organization of Iran (LMOI), which they said “is the official authority for confirming the type or cause of death.” The authorities added that “investigations are underway to clarify and bring to light the issue.” As such, the authorities suggested that Yaser Shahouzehi’s death cannot be confirmed, let alone the causes and circumstances surrounding it. As such, the authorities not only refused to address the causes and circumstances surrounding his unlawful killing, but even sought to question his death (see Section 7.2 “Lack of official records” above for more information on this concern).


Source: Activists and journalists



22. HASTI NAROUIE


Hasti Narouie, a 6-year-old girl from Iran’s long-oppressed Baluchi minority, was killed on 30 September after being hit in the head with a tear gas canister. The fatal incident took place during a violent crackdown on a protest in Zahedan, Sistan and Baluchistan province, which took place after Friday prayers outside a police station opposite a large prayer site (see the introduction of Section 7 “Sistan and Baluchistan” above for the details of this incident). According to a primary source, she was at the prayer site when she was hit. On 26 November, several days after her death was publicly reported, state media outlets aired a video-recorded statement from her father denying that security officials had fired at his daughter and stating that her death may have resulted from stone throwing or that she may

have been crushed by crowds. According to a primary source, the statement was extracted under duress, and that security and intelligence forces threatened Hasti Narouie’s father that “problems could emerge” for him or his surviving children if he does not “cooperate”.


Source: Individuals directly impacted



23. DANIAL SHAHBAKHSH

Security forces fatally shot Danial Shahbakhsh, an 11-year-old body from Iran’s long- oppressed Baluchi minority, with live ammunition on 30 September during a violent crackdown on a protest in Zahedan, Sistan and Baluchistan province, which took place after Friday prayers outside a police station opposite a large prayer site (see the introduction of Section 7 “Sistan and Baluchistan” above for the details of this incident).


Source: Individuals directly impacted


24. MOHAMMAD RAKHSHANI


Basiji agents killed Mohammad Rakhshani, a 12-year-old boy from Iran’s long-oppressed Baluchi minority, on 30 September during a violent crackdown on protests taking place in the area of Kawsar in Zahedan, Sistan and Baluchistan province. Mohammad Rakhshani was shot in his head while his brother Mohsen Rakhshani, was shot in the back after he intervened to try to save his brother’s life.


Amnesty International obtained the account of an eyewitness who described how Basiji agents opened fire on protesters who gathered near Sarollah Basij base in the area of Kawsar in Zahedan in the early afternoon. The eyewitness emphasized that protesters were simply chanting when Basiji agents started firing live ammunition to disperse the crowd. In response, some protesters resorted to stone throwing. The eyewitness added that from around 12-4pm, multiple unlicensed vehicles with uniformed Basiji agents inside them started patrolling the area and shooting at people.


The eyewitness reported that several days after Mohammad Rakhshani’s death, a delegation composed of officials from Tehran went to his house and told his family that they would be given money monthly on condition they remain silent and refrain from speaking to media outlets.


Despite this, in a report to member states of the UN Human Rights Council, the authorities of the Islamic Republic of Iran claimed that “there is no death record” for Mohammad Rakhshani before the Legal Medicine Organization of Iran, which they said “is the official authority for confirming the type or cause of death.” The authorities added that “investigations are underway to clarify and bring to light the issue.” As such, the authorities suggested that Mohammad Rakhshani’s death cannot be confirmed, let alone the causes and circumstances surrounding it. As such, the authorities not only refused to address the causes and circumstances surrounding his unlawful killing, but even sought to question his death (see Section 7.2 “Lack of official records” above for more information on this concern).


Source: Individuals directly impacted


25. OMID SAFARZEHI


Security forces killed Omid Safarzehi, a 16-year-old boy from Iran’s long-oppressed Baluchi minority, on 30 September during a violent crackdown on protests taking place in the area of Shirabad in Zahedan, Sistan and Baluchistan province.


A primary source told Amnesty International that he was shot in the head by security forces. The organization obtained two graphic videos which were consistent with this account and showed Omid Safarzehi lying lifeless with his face covered in blood.


In a report to member states of the UN Human Rights Council, the authorities of the Islamic Republic of Iran claimed that “there is no death record” for Omid Safarzehi before the Legal Medicine Organization of Iran (LMOI), which they said “is the official authority for confirming the type or cause of death.” The authorities added that “investigations are underway to clarify and bring to light the issue.” As such, the authorities not only refused to address the causes and circumstances surrounding his unlawful killing, but even sought to question his death (see Section 7.2 “Lack of official records” above for more information on this concern).


Source: Individuals directly impacted



26. OMID SARANI


Security forces killed Omid Sarani, a 13-year-old boy from Iran’s long-oppressed Baluchi minority, on 30 September during a violent crackdown on protests taking place in the area of Shirabad in Zahedan, Sistan and Baluchistan province.


Amnesty International reviewed two videos from the events of Shirabad on 30 September which document the unlawful use of firearm against peaceful protesters, including children. In one video, protesters, including children, are seen sheltering behind a wall or running away as security forces shoot towards them. A second video, filmed in the same location, depicts the deadly consequences of the security forces’ shootings some moments later. Protesters are seen carrying the bloodied bodies of two wounded children on their arms. The video then focuses on the face of one of the wounded children, whose face is entirely covered in blood.


Source: Activists and journalists


SUBSEQUENT KILLINGS OF OCTOBER AND NOVEMBER


27. MIRSHEKAR (FIRST NAME IS POSSIBLY MOHAMMAD MEHDI)

Security forces fatally killed a two-year-old boy with the family name of Mirshekar with live ammunition on 2 October in Zahedan, Sistan and Baluchestan province. According to information obtained by Amnesty International from an informed source, the boy was standing outside the entrance of his house in Jamejam street and he was shot in the head as security forces were repeatedly firing live ammunition in all directions to disperse protests.


A local source told Amnesty International that the toddler’s first name was Mohammad Mehdi, but the organization was unable to corroborate this information.


Source: Individuals directly impacted


28. OMID NAROUEI


Security forces fatally shot Omid Narouei, aged 16, with live ammunition in Zahedan, Sistan and Baluchestan province, on 28 October. According to a primary source, Omid Narouei had gone to buy bread and was passing in front of a paramilitary Basij base near the intersection of Kawsar street and Besat street in Zahedan while on his way home when Basij agents shot him in the head three times. Amnesty International reviewed several graphics videos and pictures which show Omid Narouei’s disfigured and bloodied face after being shot.


Source: Individuals directly impacted



29. ADEL KOCHAK ZAY(BARICHI)


Security forces fatally shot Adel Kochak Zay (Barichi), aged 14, in the neck with live ammunition on 28 October while he was on his way home after finishing prayers in the Great Mosalla of Zahedan, a large prayer site near the city’s main mosque, Makki Mosque, in Zahedan, Sistan and Baluchestan province. According to a primary source, after he was shot, he was first taken to Tamin Ejtemaie hospital, but the hospital refused to admit him. He was then taken to another hospital, but died before arrival. A medical note seen by Amnesty International states that he had lost all signs of life by the time he was admitted to the hospital and resuscitation efforts proved unsuccessful. The medical note further confirms that he was shot in his neck. Amnesty International also reviewed several graphics videos and pictures which showed show Adel Kochak Zay’s disfigured and bloodied face after being shot.


Source: Individuals directly impacted



30. MOBIN MIRKAZEHI


Security forces fatally shot Mobin Mirkazehi, a 14-year-old from Iran’s long-oppressed Baluchi minority, in the head with live ammunition during a violent crackdown on protests in Khash, Sistan and Baluchestan province, on 4 November. Amnesty International reviewed graphic pictures and videos which show Mobin Mirkazehi’s disfigured and bloodied face after being shot.


On 4 November, following Friday prayers, a group of protesters gathered outside the governor’s office in Khash, Sistan and Baluchistan province, situated near the city’s main mosque, Central Al-Khalil Mosque. According to evidence gathered from eyewitnesses and human rights activists, and confirmed by video footage reviewed by Amnesty International, uniformed security forces standing on the rooftops of the governor’s office began firing live ammunition towards protesters. Simultaneously, security forces fired live ammunition at protesters and bystanders from pick- up trucks belonging to the security forces in the streets surrounding Al-Khalil Mosque. Some protesters dispersed into surrounding areas, while others continued to protest outside the governor’s office and a minority threw stones towards the building after being fired at by security forces. Worshippers leaving Al-Khalil Mosque who were not participating in the protests were also caught up in the crackdown.


According to the official Telegram channel of Al-Khalil Mosque and its Friday prayer leader, Molana Mohammad Osman Ghalandarzehi, security forces opened fire on peaceful protesters and worshippers. A statement posted on the Telegram channel on 4 November said: “After Friday prayers...a number of worshippers who were peacefully protesting were shot by live ammunition directly fired by plain clothed and uniformed security forces. They were shot in their upper bodies, in their heads and chests, with live bullets. Children and youth make up the majority of those killed.”


In a further statement posted on the Telegram channel on 8 November, the Friday prayer leader said: “We called on the security forces to not fire towards the people, but they ignored [our calls]. I even contacted the officials responsible and asked them to remove the security forces from around Al-Khalil Mosque. But...the security forces started shooting from four sides, and a large number of people and worshipers were killed and injured. The beloved people who died, some of them were not even participating in the protests. They were bystanders who were simply walking in the street.”


Source: Activists and journalists

31. YASER BAHADORZEHI


Security forces fatally shot Yaser Bahadorzehi, a 17-year-old from Iran’s long-oppressed Baluchi minority, with live ammunition during a violent crackdown on protests in Khash, Sistan and Baluchestan province, on 4 November (See Case. 31).

The body of Yaser Bahadorzehi was found dumped near the building of the governor’s office the next day. He had a severe mental health disability, as indicated on his disability identification card, which is on file with Amnesty International.

Source: Activists and journalists


TEHRAN


32. NIKA SHAKARAMI


Nika Shakarami, aged 16, was forcibly disappeared on 20 September after taking part in protests in Tehran; it transpired nine days later, on 29 September, that she had died. Her burial certificate, which has been reviewed by Amnesty International cites 21 September as the date of her death and states that her death resulted from “multiple injuries caused by collision with a hard object”.


According to primary sources with knowledge of her case, Nika Shakarami last talked to her mother and one of her friends on the phone around 11:30pm on 20 September and said she was being chased by security officials. Her mobile phone was subsequently switched off and her social media accounts deleted. For the next nine days, her family repeatedly sought to obtain information about her from multiple police stations, detention facilities, intelligence bodies and the Legal Medicine Organization of Iran. However, authorities either denied any knowledge about her fate and whereabouts to her family or gave them conflicting information. During the same period, several individuals who said they were Revolutionary Guards agents but refused to provide their names phoned the family multiple times, stating that she had been in the custody of the Revolutionary Guards for several days and was then transferred to Tehran’s Evin prison. Despite this, when her family sought information at Evin prison, officials denied that Nika Shakarami was not being held there.


Eventually, on 29 September, authorities at the investigation unit of Iran’s police (Agahi) in Tehran informed the family that there was a body in a morgue in Kahrizak, Tehran province, that matched the description of Nika Shakarami. Her family was allowed to briefly see the body in the Kahrizak morgue the next day and identified the deceased as Nika Shakarami. According to media interviews given by her family, her cheekbones, nose and teeth were broken and her skull pounded from blows to her head. The family took the body to Salehin cemetery in Khorramabad, Lorestan province, with the intention of burying her there, but hours before the scheduled funeral, security and intelligence bodies secretly removed the body from the morgue and buried her in the remote village of Hayatolgheyb in Veysian district, Lorestan province, without the family’s consent.


Consistent with previous patterns of denial, distortion and cover-ups in order to absolve themselves of accountability in the face of significant domestic and global media attention to Nika Shikarami’s death, the authorities have propagated bogus narratives about her death without carrying out impartial and full investigations, while pressuring her family to publicly confirm the official state narrative about her death.


The authorities have also subjected Nika Shakarami’s family members to arbitrary arrest, and other forms of harassment and intimidation. Her maternal aunt and uncle were arbitrarily arrested on 3 October and detained temporarily. Several days later, on 5 October, the Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting aired a propaganda video which showed her maternal aunt and uncle accepting the official narrative and referring to the actions of protesters using expressions identical to those used by the authorities and state media to vilify demonstrators. The propaganda video showed a girl whom the authorities claim is Nika Shakarami walking into a building, while claiming that her death was unrelated to protests or beatings by security forces but was, instead, caused by “falling from a height” from a building rooftop near her aunt’s home. According to information obtained from a primary source, these statements were extracted under conditions of duress in detention, including threats of violence. On 6 October 2022, in response to the propaganda video, Nika Shakarami’s mother made a statement in a moving video testimony, published by Radio Farda, that the person in the video is not her daughter, that the authorities had coerced her brother and sister into making forced, false statements, and that they have also threatened her with reprisals if she does not publicly accept the official narrative that her daughter had committed suicide.


Source: Individuals directly impacted



33. MOHAMMAD REZA SARVARI


Security forces fatally shot Mohammad Reza Sarvari, a 14- year-old boy of Afghan nationality, during protests in Shahr- e Rey, Tehran province on 21 September. On 7 October, his lawyer published on his Twitter account a copy of his burial certificate, issued by the Legal Medicine Organization of Iran, a state forensic institute, which stated that Mohammad Reza Sarvari died as a result of “bleeding and shattered brain tissue” caused by “being hit with a fast-moving projectile”. The lawyer wrote that he was publicly sharing the official document to prevent the authorities and state media outlets from later propagating false narratives that the child died due to “suicide”, as they have done in the cases of multiple protesters and bystanders killed at the hands of security forces. Amnesty International also reviewed a corroborating video showing Mohammad Reza Sarvari on the ground and severely bleeding from his head. A primary source told Amnesty International that Mohammad Reza Sarvari was shot in the back of his head while fleeing from security forces who were randomly firing at protesters. Security and intelligence officials have warned Mohammad Reza Sarvari’s family against speaking out.


According to a report distributed by the Iranian authorities to member states of the UN Human Rights Council ahead of the Special Session on Iran, Mohammad Reza Sarvari “was shot dead by unknown persons.” The authorities added, in a desperate effort to absolve themselves of responsibility, “law enforcement officers had no firearms. He was murdered in line with the terrorists’ killing project. Moreover, it has so far not been identified that the deceased was shot by whom, or how he has lost his life. Investigations are underway to clarify and bring to light the dimensions of the incident.”


Mohammad Reza Sarvari’s lawyer has requested CCTV footage of the incident. In mid- November, the investigator of the case in Branch 4 of the Office of the Prosecution in Shahr-e Rey instructed the relevant police authorities to release the footage. As of 9 December 2022, no step had been taken in this relation.


Source: Individuals directly impacted



34. SETAREH TAJIK


Setareh Tajik, a 17-year-old girl of Afghan nationality, was killed during the protests in Tehran, Tehran province, on 22 September. According to information received from a primary source, her face and body were severely smashed and bloody, which indicated that her death resulted from beatings at the hands of security force. This is consistent with information recorded on Setareh Tajik’s burial certificate, which has been reviewed by Amnesty International. The certificate states that her death resulted from “multiple injuries caused by collision with a hard object”.


Setareh Tajik’s family received a call from Marzdaran police station in the evening of 22 October and told to go to the police station the next morning. The family was provided with no further information. The next morning, at around 6am, an official from the same police called the family, informed them of Setareh Tajik’s death, and instructed them to go to Behesht Zahra morgue in Tehran to collect her body. The family subsequently went to the morgue and after hours of waiting, they were shown Setareh Tajik’s body, which was wrapped in plastic sheets. According to information obtained by Amnesty International, when the family removed the plastic sheets, they saw signs of bleeding from Setareh Tajik’s head, ears, nose and mouth. Intelligence and security agents present at the morgue told Setareh Tajik’s family that she had committed suicide and refused to answer her family’s questions as to how the authorities had found her body. The authorities forced the family to bury Setareh Tajik the same evening quickly and without a funeral service.


Since her death, Setareh Tajik’s family has repeatedly gone to police officials and prosecution bodies to file a complaint and seek an investigation into the causes and circumstances surrounding her death. The authorities have refused to process the family’s requests and provided contradictory accounts. On some occasions, they have said Setareh Tajik may have been killed by someone who had “a private dispute” with the family. At other times, they have said the family should accept that Setareh Tajik committed suicide. The family’s requests from the Legal Medicine Organization of Iran for access to her autopsy report have also gone unanswered.


In a report to member states of the UN Human Rights Council shared ahead of the Special Session on Iran on 24 November, the authorities of the Islamic Republic of Iran claimed that Setareh Tajik died “as a result of suicide caused by falling from a height.” The report added that “[w]hen receiving the body, the father of the deceased announced in writing that her daughter had thrown herself from the bridge and died on the spot.”


Source: Individuals directly impacted



35. SIAVASH MAHMOUDI


Security forces fatally shot Siavash Mahmoudi, aged, 16, during protests in Tehran on 25 September. Amnesty International has not obtained detailed information about the circumstances in which he was killed, but reviewed a video of his bereaved mother, which circulated online on 30 September and shows her holding a picture of her son in the street and inviting people to attend her son’s funeral. She states: “Let everyone know. This is [the picture of] my Siavash. Siavash Mahmoudi...They [security forces] killed my child. They shot him in his head. I am proud to be the mother of Siavash Mahmoudi. I am not afraid of anyone. They [the authorities] are telling me to remain silent, but I will not sit in silence.”


In a report to member states of the UN Human Rights Council shared ahead of the Special Session on Iran on 24 November, the authorities of the Islamic Republic of Iran claimed that Siavash Mahmoudi “was gunned down by unknown persons while participating in the recent riots.” The authorities added, “During the said time, the law enforcement officers did not use firearms to deal with the riots. It has hitherto not been identified that the deceased was shot by whom, or how he has lost his life. Therefore, investigations are underway to clarify and bring to light the dimensions of the incident.”


Source: Individuals directly impacted


36. AMIR MEHDI FARROKHIPOUR


Security forces fatally shot Amir Mehdi Farrokhipour, aged 17, during protests near Keshavarz Boulevard in Tehran on 28 September. A relative of the victim living outside Iran told Amnesty International that, according to information received from primary sources in Iran, security forces fired both metal pellets and live ammunition at him, and that he died from gunshot wounds in his chest. According to the relative living abroad, intelligence officials forced the child’s father to record a video statement falsely stating that his son died during an accident, threatening to kill or otherwise harm his daughters if he refused.


In a report to member states of the UN Human Rights Council shared ahead of the Special Session on Iran on 24 November, the authorities of the Islamic Republic of Iran cited “multiple injuries due to being hit by a hard object” as the cause of Amir Mehdi Farrokhipour’s death. The authorities added, in a desperate effort to absolve themselves of responsibility, “When the deceased's father received the body, he announced in writing that his son, who was riding a motorcycle, passed away due to an accident and after hitting street curbs.”


Source: Individuals directly impacted


37. AHMADREZAQELEJI


Security forces fatally shot 17-year-old Ahmadreza Qeleji with live ammunition during a violent crackdown on protests in Tehran on 21 September. His burial certificate, which has been reviewed by Amnesty International, states that he was “hit by high-speed projectiles” and cited the cause of death as “internal damage to chest and stomach” and “trauma caused by bleeding”.

Source: Individuals directly impacted


WEST AZERBAIJAN


38. ZAKARIA KHIAL



Security forces fatally shot Zakaria Khial, aged 16, during protests in Piranshahr, West Azerbaijan province on 20 September. According to information provided by a primary source, security forces fired live ammunition at Zakaria Khial from about two meters, and while lying bleeding on the ground, they also severely beat him, which left him with broken legs and hands. The primary source said that the governor of Piranshahr, the city’s Friday prayer leader and several other high-ranking security and intelligence officials have been intensely pressuring the family to give a video- recorded statement, reiterating the authorities’ narrative that an armed Kurdish opposition killed Zakaria Khial.


Source: Individuals directly impacted


39. ABDOLLAHMAH MOUDPOUR


Security forces including paramilitary Basij forces fired live ammunition at protesters who had gathered in the vicinity of the Basij headquarters in the village of Balou, West Azerbaijan province, on 21 September, resulting in the death of Abdollah Mahmoudpour, aged 17. Amnesty International obtained a voice message from an eyewitness saying: “They [security forces] are directly killing us.” The organization reviewed a video from Balou indicating that security forces continued to fire live ammunition even when protesters had already moved away from the entrance of the Basiji headquarters and were protesting from a distance without posing any imminent threat to anyone.


Source: Individuals directly impacted


40. AMIN MAREFAT


Revolutionary Guards agents in in Oshnavieh, West Azerbaijan province killed Amin Marefat, aged 16, on 21 September while randomly firing live ammunition at protesters. Amnesty International obtained the account of a protester who described how “Amin Marefat was shot in his heart ... and the bullet exited through his back.” The organization reviewed a video corroborating the eyewitness testimony showing a bullet hole in the back of Amin Marefat’s body.


Source: Individuals directly impacted



41. KOUMAR DAROFTADEH


Koumar Daroftadeh, aged 16, was killed during protests in Piranshahr, West Azerbaijan province, on 30 October, after security forces fired metal pellets at his chest and stomach from close range. In an interview with Radio Farda, an independent media outlet outside Iran, published on 13 November, his father described that plainclothes officials shot his son, and that the Legal Medicine Organization of Iran, the state forensic institute, has confirmed that the pellets which penetrated Koumar Daroftadeh’s body were fired from a distance of about 1m. Amnesty International has reviewed several graphic pictures, which show classic spray patterns of metal pellet wounds to the back, chest and arm of Koumar Daroftadeh .


Koumar Daroftadeh’s family rushed to Piranshahr hospital in the evening of 30 October after a local resident called them to say that the body of a 16-year-old boy had been taken there. Hospital staff refused to provide them with any information and said that staff at the office of the governor of Piranshahr would be in contact with them. Later that evening, the family went to the governor’s office. There, they met with security and intelligence officials, including from the Ministry of Intelligence and the Revolutionary Guards, as well as Piranshahr’s prosecutor and governor. The authorities told the family that they would return the body on the condition that they take an hour maximum to wash and bury him that night. After heated objections and negotiations, the authorities eventually allowed the family to bury the body the next morning on the condition that he is buried outside Piranshahr. The family agreed under pressure to bury Koumar Daroftadeh in their village of origin, Ziokeh, which is 25km away from Piranshahr. In an interview with Radio Zamaneh, an independent media outlet outside Iran, published on 12 November, Koumar Daroftadeh’s father said:

“If I could have my wish and [the authorities] had not stopped us, we would have liked to bury Koumar in Piranshahr and to hold the funeral ceremony here. But they forced us to bury him in the village. We did not do this of our own free will. They did not even allow us to hold the funeral ceremony in Piranshahr. We do not want anyone’s blood to be spilled. If we had buried him in [Piranshahr] it is possible that the situation would have become bigger, because if the blood of any person, any child, is spilled, it is still our own blood, it is still [the blood] of our sons and our children. There was also the possibility that people would protest.”


In a video filmed during Koumar Daroftadeh’s funeral ceremony on 31 October, his father made an emotional and tearful speech, in which he said:


“My son was born on [16 August]. I named him Koumar (Republic). I am happy that he has been martyred for freedom and his nation. I am proud that he was martyred. The anguish I am feeling is very hard. You have not experienced it. I have been in anguish since last night but I will sacrifice this feeling for this nation and this freedom. I swear to God they will kill all of us. I swear to God my son was innocent. They [the security forces] will not have mercy on anyone.”


Since the funeral ceremony, security and intelligence agents in Piranshahr have summoned Koumar Daroftadeh’s father for interrogation several times and put him under pressure to publicly absolve security forces of responsibility and attribute the killing of his son to Kurdish opposition groups. In his 13 November interview with Radio Farda, Koumar Daroftadeh’s father explained:


“They [intelligence and security agents] summoned me and told me that I should say whatever they dictate to me, but this is not in my nature. The authorities killed my son and must be held accountable. They said that [opposition] groups attacked [my son]. I told them that if it was really gangs who did it, then why were you [the security forces] there at the same time? Why did you take his body? Why were you in possession of his mobile phone? In no world and under no law would a 16-year-old child be shot with live ammunition.”


Koumar Daroftadeh’s father added:

“I just want to tell government officials that, those who are killing people’s children have children of their own. With what conscience does an agent [member of security forces] buy clothes for his own child while killing my child? With what conscience does he embrace his own child while killing mine? With what conscience does he sit at home and tell his child to eat and promise to buy gifts but then kill my child? He should sit and judge these things for himself. How does the person who killed my child look at his own child? I will entrust him to his own conscience and to God.”


Source: Individuals directly impacted



42. NIMA SHAFAGHDOOST


Nima Shafaghdoost died in Urumieh, West Azerbaijan province, on 5 October at the age of 16 as a result of security forces firing metal pellets at him. Human rights defenders outside Iran told Amnesty International that according to information received from sources on the ground, for several days after he was shot, Nima Shafaghdoost did not seek treatment for fear of arrest. Amnesty International has been unable to confirm the exact circumstances surrounding his death, including the exact date of the shooting, and has learned that security and intelligence bodies have harassed and intimidated his family and warned them against speaking out.


In a report to member states of the UN Human Rights Council shared ahead of the Special Session on Iran on 24 November, the authorities of the Islamic Republic of Iran claimed that the death of Nima Shafaghdoost “was caused by Capnocytophaga infection due to dog bites and had nothing to do with the riots” and that this version of events has been accepted by a statement by “the deceased’s parents produced at the police station.” The authorities added that “his relatives, including his uncle, have stated that the information published in cyberspace about the death of Aslan during the riots is entirely false.”


On 16 October 2022, the police chief of Urumieh, Hassan Sheikhnejad, publicly reiterated the same false narrative about the death of Nima Shafaghdoost and claimed that “by pumping false news among the people and carrying out psychological operations, opposition media has tried to mislead the people about the death of ... Nima Shafaghdoost.” The official added that “enemies with evil intentions are always seeking to create division and create disturbance in the public mind.”


Source: Activists and journalists



43. KARVANGHADERSHOKRI


Security forces shot Karvan Ghader Shokri, aged 16, with live ammunition during protests in Piranshahr, West Azerbaijan province, on 19 November. He died from his injuries the next day, on 20 November. An article published by Etemad, a national newspaper, on 27 November quotes Karvan Ghader Shokri’s father saying that his son was shot twice in his kidneys and legs.


The killing of Karvan Ghader Shokri sparked further mass protests in Piranshahr, which were again met with unlawful use of firearms, resulting in the death of one mourner during his funeral ceremony on 21 November.

Source: Activists and journalists



ZANJAN


44. MEHDI MOUSAVI NIKOU


Security forces killed Mehdi Mousavi Nikou, aged 16, during protests in Zanjan, Zanjan province, on 21 September. According to information published by two independent media outlets, Iran Wire and Iran International, security forces first fired metal pellets at Mehdi Mousavi Nikou from behind, causing him to fall to the ground. Security forces then fatally struck his head and body with batons, and he died while being transferred from the site of the incident to a hospital.

Source: Activists and journalists



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