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These are the 26 men at risk of execution

As of 15 December 2022, Amnesty International had identified 26 individuals at risk of execution. Their cases fall under three categories:


1. Individuals who have been sentenced to death: Sahand Nourmohammad-Zadeh; Mahan Sadrat (Sedarat) Madani; Manouchehr Mehman Navaz; Mohammad Boroughani; Mohammad Ghobadlou; Saman Seydi (Yasin); Hamid Ghare Hasanlou; Mohammad Mehdi Karami; Sayed Mohammad Hosseini; Hossein Mohammadi; and an unnamed individual in Alborz province.


2. Individuals who have undergone trial on capital charges and who are either at risk of being sentenced to death or may have already been sentenced to death. At the time of writing, there was no publicly available information on the status of their cases. They are: Saeed Shirazi; Abolfazl Mehri Hossein Hajilou; and Mohsen Rezazadeh Gharegholou.


3. Individuals who have been charged with capital offences and may be either awaiting or undergoing trial. They are: Akbar Ghafari; Toomaj Salehi; Ebarhim Rigi; Amir Nasr Azadani; Saleh Mirhashemi; Saeed Yaghoubi; Farzad (Farzin) Tahazadeh; Farhad Tahazadeh; Karvan Shahiparvaneh; Reza Eslamdoost; Hajar Hamidi and Shahram Marouf-Moula.




For this document, Amnesty International reviewed official reports and statements; reports and propaganda videos by state media; publicly available information shared by relatives, lawyers and others impacted; testimony gathered from eyewitnesses including a former cellmate; audiovisual evidence including footage of hearings by Revolutionary Courts; and other documents such as medical notes and casefile material.

Amnesty International is aware of reports that refer to other individuals at risk of the death penalty and is investigating these cases, with a view to regularly updating the organizations’ findings.




1. SAHAND NOURMOHAMMAD-ZADEH


A Revolutionary Court in Tehran sentenced young protester Sahand Nourmohammad-Zadeh to death in November 2022 over accusations of “tearing down highway railings and setting fire to rubbish cans and tires” with the aim of “disrupting peace and order and confronting the Islamic state”. The court ruled the accusations amounted to “enmity against God” (moharebeh).

Sahand Nourmohammad-Zadeh's death sentence was issued after fast-tracked proceedings which did not resemble a meaningful trial and under two months after his arrest on 23 September 2022. His lawyer emphasized in court that the video footage used as evidence against him does not depict him setting fire to rubbish bins or tearing down highway railings.

On 7 November 2022, Mizan Online, a state media outlet affiliated with the judiciary, reported that Sahand Nourmohammad-Zadeh was on trial before Branch 29 of the Revolutionary Court in Tehran. In video footage shown during the proceedings and released publicly, a number of individuals, including a man wearing a mask, whom the authorities have alleged to be Sahand Nourmohammad-Zadeh, are seen placing the guard railing between two carriage ways on the road in order to block the traffic. In another section of the same video, the same man, along with another individual, are seen pushing a burning rubbish bin onto the road. According to video footage released by state media of some segments of the trial, Sahand Nourmohammad- Zadeh maintained his innocence in court and his lawyer emphasized in court that the video footage used as evidence does not depict him setting fire to the rubbish bins or tearing down the railings.


In an audio file recorded in prison and shared publicly on 8 December 2022, which has been reviewed by Amnesty International, Sahand Nourmohammad-Zadeh says that he was held in solitary confinement for about a week following his arrest on 23 September 2022 and that his interrogators placed him under immense psychological pressure in order to force him to make self-incriminating statements. Sahand Nourmohammd-Zadeh said that his interrogators claimed that his mother was critically ill and that they would allow him to speak to her on the phone on the condition he wrote down and signed the statements they dictated to him. His interrogators and prosecution authorities also repeatedly threatened him with execution and coerced him into making video-taped “confessions” falsely promising to release him if he “cooperated.” Sahanad Nourmohammad-Zadeh has said that he was not familiar with the charge of “enmity against God” (moharebeh) and when he asked prosecution authorities what it meant, he was told “what you have done is moharebeh.”


Sahand Nourmohammad-Zadeh’s death sentence is a horrific assault on the right to life and a brazen violation of international law, which prohibits the use of the death penalty for crimes not involving intentional killing.



2. MAHAN SADRAT (SEDARAT) MADANI


Mahan Sadrat (Sedarat) Madani, a 22-year-old protester, had his death sentence sent for implementation just a month after he underwent a grossly unfair trial before a Revolutionary Court in Tehran on 3 November 2022. He was transferred from the Greater Tehran Penitentiary to Raja’i Shahr prison in Karaj, Alborz province on 10 December 2022, sparking concerns that his execution may be carried out imminently. On 14 December 2022, his lawyer announced publicly that the Supreme Court halted implementation of Mahan Sadrat (Sedarat) Madani’s death sentence pending a request for judicial review.


Mahan Sadrat (Sedarat) Madani’s death sentence is over accusations of using a knife to attack an individual, setting a motorcycle on fire and damaging a mobile phone, which the court ruled amounted to “enmity against God” (moharabeh). He repeatedly denied in court the accusations related to attacking someone with a knife.


On 3 November, state media, citing the judiciary’s news agency, reported that Mahan Sadrat (Sedarat) Madani was on trial before Branch 26 of the Revolutionary Court. Mizan Online released CCTV footage which it alleged depicts Mahan Sadrat (Sedarat) Madani attacking another man with a knife and setting fire to a motorbike. Amnesty International has reviewed the video footage, which is grainy and of low quality, making it difficult to identify any person with reasonable certainty. No knife is discernable in the video footage.


On 11 December 2022, Mahan Sadrat (Sedarat) Madani’s lawyer told a national news agency that he had learned from a text message from the judiciary that the case of his client had been sent to the Office for the Implementation of Sentences, but he had not been provided with the Supreme Court’s ruling. He added that although he was not able to access the verdict, the fact that Mahan Sadrat (Sedarat) Madani’s case had been sent for implementation meant that the Supreme Court had upheld the death sentence.


Mahan Sadrat (Sedarat) Madani’s death sentence is a brazen violation of international law which prohibits the use of the death penalty for crimes not involving intentional killing.



3. MANOUCHEHR MEHMAN NAVAZ


In November 2022, a Revolutionary Court in Tehran sentenced Manouchehr Mehman-Navaz to death for allegedly setting fire to a state building during protests “with intent to confront the Islamic state”. The court ruled that this amounted to “enmity against God” (moharabeh) in an unfair sham trial bearing no resemblance to meaningful judicial proceedings.


Manouchehr Mehman-Navaz's death sentence was issued in a speedy manner just two weeks after his trial started on 29 October. On 30 October 2022, Mizan Online reported that a day earlier, the trial of Manouchehr Mehman-Navaz commenced before Branch 28 of the Revolutionary Court in Tehran on charges including “arson at buildings with intent to confront the Islamic government”, “disrupting public order and security through causing chaos and tumult” and “participation in illegal assemblies”. The authorities have accused Manouchehr Mehman-Navaz of having set fire to parts of a government building in Gharchak, Tehran province, and to several cars parked within its grounds. The authorities have not publicly stated when these alleged incidents had taken place.


This is yet another illustration of how the Islamic Republic of Iran is cruelly using the death penalty as a weapon of political repression to further repress popular protests. In a further shocking move, prosecution authorities have asked for the execution of Manoucher Mehman- Navaz to be carried out in public at the location of the alleged arson incident.


Manouchehr Mehman-Navaz’s death sentence is an assault on the right to life and a brazen violation of international law which prohibits the use of the death penalty for crimes not involving intentional killing.



4. MOHAMMAD BOROUGHANI


On 14 December 2022, authorities transferred young protester Mohammad Boroughani to section 390 of Raja’i Shahr prison in Karaj, Alborz Province, sparking fears that his execution may be imminent. He was sentenced to death for “enmity against God” (moharebeh) in an unfair sham trial in November 2022.


Within two weeks of proceedings that bore no resemblance to a meaningful judicial trial, a Revolutionary Court in Tehran sentenced Mohammad Boroughani to death for allegedly wielding a machete, setting fire to the governor’s building and injuring a state agent.


Mohammad Boroughani was tried together with at least five other men – Mohammad Ghobadlou (entry No.5), Saman Seydi (Yasin) (entry No. 6), Saeed Shirazi (entry No. 12), Abolfazl Mehri Hossein Hajilou (entry No. 13), and Mohsen Rezazadeh Gharagholou (entry No. 14) – by a Revolutionary Court in Tehran. According to reports by Mizan Online, a state media outlet affiliated with the judiciary, the men were brought to a Revolutionary Court on 29 October 2022. The court was presided by the head of Branch 15 of the Revolutionary Court, Abolghasem Salavati, but it remains unclear if Branch 15 conducted the trial or a special court was set up by the authorities in response to the protests. The official banner appearing behind the judge identifies the body conducting the group trial as the “court for dealing with the charges against recent rioters”. This banner reveals the highly biased position towards the defendants and undermines their presumption of innocence.


Mohammad Boroughani’s death sentence is an assault on the right to life and a brazen violation of international law which prohibits the use of the death penalty for crimes not involving intentional killing.


5. MOHAMMAD GHOBADLOU


Mohammad Ghobadlou, aged 22, was sentenced to death for “corruption on earth” (efsad-e fel arz) after a fast-tracked unfair sham trial before a Revolutionary Court in Tehran in October 2022. Authorities relied on torture-tainted “confessions” to find him guilty of running over police officials with a car, killing one and injuring others.


Mohammad Ghobadlou’s lawyer has pointed to the prosecution’s reliance on flawed evidence and the absence of credible inculpatory evidence against his client in the casefile, such as photographs of the crime scene and injuries sustained by the deceased at time of the incident, his hospitalization records, and the post-mortem examination. His lawyer has warned that the authorities are seeking to convict his client in a summary fashion, which he said would constitute “revenge” not justice.


Amnesty International has serious concerns that Mohammad Ghobadlou was subjected to torture and other ill-treatment. A forensic report, dated 20 October 2022, pointed to bruising and injuries on Mohammad Ghobadlou’s right arm, right elbow and left shoulder blade which it assessed had been sustained when he would have been in custody.


The court sentenced Mohammad Ghobadlou to death under two months after his arrest on 22 September. His independently appointed lawyers were not allowed in court and according to his lawyer and relatives, the court failed to conduct adequate examinations into his mental health. Mohammad Ghobadlou’s mother has stated that her son suffers from mental health problems.


Mohammad Ghobaldou is undergoing another trial before a criminal court in Tehran on the charges stemming from the same alleged acts in contravention of protection against double jeopardy. If convicted, he could receive yet another death sentence.


The case of Mohammad Ghobaldou was joined together with that of at least five other men – Mohammad Boroughani (entry No.4), Saman Seydi (Yasin) (entry No. 6), Saeed Shirazi (entry No. 12), Abolfazl Mehri Hossein Hajilou (entry No. 13), and Mohsen Rezazadeh Gharagholou (entry No.14) – and referred to a Revolutionary Court in Tehran for a group trial. According to reports by Mizan Online, the men were brought to a Revolutionary Court on 29 October 2022. The court was presided by the head of Branch 15 of the Revolutionary Court, Abolghasem Salavati, but it remains unclear if Branch 15 conducted the trial or a special court was set up by the authorities in response to the protests. The official banner appearing behind the judge identifies the body conducting the group trial as the “court for dealing with the charges against recent rioters”. This banner reveals the highly biased position towards the defendants and undermines their presumption of innocence.


On 1 November 2022, Mohammad Ghobadlou’s mother released a video message, saying authorities had barred her son from receiving visits, were holding him in solitary confinement and denying him his medication. This followed her earlier video message stating her son suffered from mental health problems.


On 30 October, Mohammad Ghobadlou’s independently appointed lawyer published a series of tweets pointing to serious violations of his client's right to a fair trial including denial of the right to access a lawyer at the investigation phase. Mohammad Ghobadlou’s lawyer added that his client was also denied the right to be represented by his independently appointed lawyer during the trial before the Revolutionary Court in Tehran.

On 2 November 2022, Mizan Online published an article confirming that the authorities are barring Mohammad Ghobadlou’s independently appointed lawyers from representing him in his trial before the Revolutionary Court in Tehran, noting that independently appointed lawyers are allowed to defend him in the parallel case he is facing before a criminal court.



6. SAMAN SEYEDI (YASIN)


In early December 2022, Saman Seydi (Yasin), a young rapper from Iran’s persecuted Kurdish minority, was moved from Evin Prison in Tehran to Raja’i Shahr prison in Karaj, Alborz Province, sparking fears that his death sentence has been upheld and the authorities are preparing to execute him.


Saman Seydi (Yasin) was sentenced to death just weeks after his arrest on 2 October 2022 in an unfair sham trial by a Revolutionary Court. Authorities relied on torture-tainted “confessions” to find him guilty of shooting a pistol three times into the air during protests, which they said amounts to “enmity against God” (moharabeh).


Amnesty International has received information that the authorities subjected Saman Seydi to torture and other ill-treatment to extract forced “confessions” including through severe beatings and forced exposure to extreme cold.


On 11 December, Saman Seydi’s (Yasin) lawyer told a national news agency that judicial authorities had barred him from accessing his client's casefile on the pretext that the case was “confidential”. He expressed concerns that the court had sentenced Saman Seydi (Yasin) to death without him having had access to the casefile and that only ten days were left to meet the deadline for appealing the conviction and sentence to the Supreme Court. According to Saman Seydi’s lawyer, the court had relied on video footage depicting an individual firing into the air to convict his client even though the identity of the individual in the video was not discernible, and no weapons or ammunition had been retrieved by the authorities from the scene of the alleged crime.


In a video-taped appeal broadcast by Persian speaking media outside Iran, Saman Seydi’s (Yasin) mother highlighted the authorities’ use of the death penalty for alleged offences such as vandalism and arson, asking “where in the world have you seen [the authorities] taking a cherished life for setting fire on a rubbish bin?”


Prior to his arrest, Saman Seydi (Yasin) had posted several Instagram stories in support of the protests. His rap songs also include sociopolitical themes critical of the authorities.


Security forces arrested Saman Seydi (Yasin) at his home in Tehran on 2 October 2022. His family was given no information about his fate and whereabouts until almost a week later when he was allowed to briefly phone them.


The case of Saman Seydi (Yasin) was joined together with that of at least five other men – Mohammad Boroughani (see entry No. 4), Mohammad Ghobaldou (entry No. 5), Saeed Shirazi (entry No. 12), Abolfazl Mehri Hossein Hajilou (entry No.13), and Mohsen Rezazadeh Gharagholou (entry No.14) – and referred to a Revolutionary Court in Tehran for a group trial. According to reports by Mizan Online, the men were brought to the Revolutionary Court on 29 October 2022. The court is presided over by the head of Branch 15 of the Revolutionary Court, Abolghasem Salavati, but it remains unclear if Branch 15 conducted the trial or a special court was set up by the authorities in response to the protests. The official banner appearing behind the judge identifies the body conducting the group trial as the “court for dealing with the charges against recent rioters”. This banner reveals the highly biased position towards the defendants and undermines their presumption of innocence.


Saman’s death sentence is an assault on the right to life and a brazen violation of international law which prohibits the use of the death penalty for crimes not involving intentional killing.



7. HAMID GHARE-HASANLOU


On 3 November 2022, medical doctor Hamid Ghare-Hasanlou and his wife Farzaneh Ghare-Hasanlou were on their way to the funeral ceremony of a killed protester when they became stuck in traffic caused by protests in Karaj, Alborz province. According to Hamid Ghare-Hasanlou's brother, who lives outside Iran, the couple left their car to walk away from the traffic. Moments later, they were caught up in the chaos of an incident that involved several people fatally assaulting an individual, whom the authorities have said was an agent of the paramilitary Basij force. In a video footage of the incident released by state media, Farzaneh Ghare-Hasanlou is seen attempting to pull back a person to prevent him from harming the assault victim.


The next day, security forces arrested Farzaneh Ghare-Hasanlou and Hamid Ghare-Hasanlou at their home in Karaj in connection with the fatal assault of the Basiji agent. Around the same period, the authorities arrested 12 other people, including three children, in connection with the same incident.


According to informed sources, the authorities repeatedly tortured Hamid Ghare-Hasanlou to extract forced “confessions” from him, leading to his hospitalization with broken ribs and difficulties breathing. They also coerced his wife to make incriminating statements against him which they used at court to convict him. Farzaneh Ghare-Hasanlou retracted her “confessions” at court.


Hamid Ghare-Hasanlou has thus far undergone three surgeries for internal bleeding in his punctured lung. A photo of him in a hospital gown clearly shows large bruising on his upper left tight and lower abdomen, wound dressings on his rib cage as well as a surgery drainage tube.


On 1 December 2022, against doctor’s advice, authorities removed Hamid Ghare-Hasanlou from hospital after he had undergone a surgery and took him to court for trial while he was heavily sedated.


During the trial, Hamid Ghare-Hasanlou removed his clothing and showed the judge his torture injuries. No investigation into his allegations of torture and other ill-treatment has been carried out.


Four days later, on 5 December, a Revolutionary Court in Alborz province sentenced Hamid Ghare-Hasalou to death, after convicting him of “corruption on earth” (efsad-e fel arz) in connection with the fatal assault of a Basiji agent. The court relied on “confessions” extracted under torture and other ill-treatment to convict him less than a week after the trial had started. Farzaneh Ghare-Hasanlou was sentenced to 25’ years' imprisonment which the court ruled must be served in “internal exile” and total isolation with no visits permitted.


According to official announcements, four other co-defendants were also sentenced to death in connection with the same fatal assault. The authorities did not reveal their names, but information gathered by Amnesty International indicates that they include Mohammad Mehdi Karami (entry No. 8), Seyed Mohammad Hosseini (entry No. 9) and Hossein Mohammadi (entry No. 10). The identity of the fifth co-defendant sentenced to death remains unclear to Amnesty International (entry No.11). Based on publicly available information on the sentences passed against a number of individuals who underwent the group trial, he could be one of the following people: Reza Arya, Mehdi Mohammadi, Shayan Charani, Mohammad Amin Akhlaghi, Reza Shaker Zavardahi, Javad Zargaran, or Behrad Ali Kenari. The Iranian authorities must immediately clarify the conviction and sentence issued against each of these individuals.


Before the group trial had started, state media aired the defendants’ forced “confessions” and described them as “murderers”, in breach of their rights to presumption of innocence and freedom from torture and other cruel, inhumane and degrading treatment.



8. MOHAMMAD MEHDI KARAMI


On 5 December 2022, a Revolutionary Court in Alborz province sentenced young protester Mohammad Mehdi Karami to death after convicting him of “corruption on earth” in connection with the fatal assault of a Basij agent during protests about a month earlier on 3 November. The court convicted him less than a week after the beginning of a fast- tracked unfair group trial on 30 November 2022 which bore no resemblance to a meaningful judicial proceeding.


On 12 December 2022, Mohammad Mehdi Karami’s father told a national new agency that the authorities had not allowed the family’s independently appointed lawyer access to his son’s casefile. He added that the court-appointed lawyer failed to respond to the family’s repeated calls and requests to provide them with the documents needed to appeal the verdict or even share the address of his office.

He said: “I have not been able to work... I go to the court and prison every morning and then walk aimlessly in the streets. This morning I went to prison, but the assistant prosecutor stationed in prison was not there. They told me that I must stop going there if my case related to the protests. They do not give you any response. Every night I am terrified that they would give me the news of my child’s execution. I have lost hope... they have sentenced my child to death and might carry out his execution any minute.”


Four other co-defendants were also sentenced to death in connection with the same fatal assault. The authorities did not reveal their names, but information gathered by Amnesty International indicates that they include Hamid Ghare-Hasalou (entry No. 7), Sayed Mohammad Hosseini (entry No. 9) and Hossein Mohammadi (entry No. 10). The identity of the fifth co-defendant sentenced to death remains unclear to Amnesty International and he could be one of the following people who underwent the group trial: Reza Arya, Mehdi Mohammadi, Shayan Charani, Mohammad Amin Akhlaghi, Reza Shaker Zavardahi, Javad Zargaran or Behrad Ali Kenari. The Iranian authorities must immediately clarify the conviction and sentence issued against each of these individuals.


Before the group trial had started, state media aired the defendants’ forced “confessions” and described them as “murderers”, in breach of their rights to presumption of innocence and freedom from torture and other cruel, inhumane and degrading treatment.



9. SEYED MOHAMMAD HOSSEINI


On 5 December 2022, a Revolutionary Court in Alborz province sentenced young protester Seyed Mohammad Hosseini to death after convicting him of “corruption on earth” (efsad-e fel arz) in connection with the fatal assault of a Basij agent during protests about a month earlier on 3 November. The court convicted him less than a week after the beginning of a fast- tracked unfair sham group trial on 30 November 2022 which bore no resemblance to judicial proceedings.


Four other co-defendants were also sentenced to death in connection with the same fatal assault. The authorities did not reveal their names, but information gathered by Amnesty International indicates that they include Hamid Ghare-Hasalou (entry No. 7), Mohammad Mehdi Karami (entry No. 8) and Hossein Mohammadi (entry No. 10). The identity of the fifth co-defendant sentenced to death remains unclear to Amnesty International (entry No.11). Based on publicly available information on the sentences against a number of individuals who underwent the group trial, he could be one of the following people: Reza Arya, Mehdi Mohammadi, Shayan Charani, Mohammad Amin Akhlaghi, Reza Shaker Zavardahi, Javad Zargaran or Behrad Ali Kenari. The Iranian authorities must immediately clarify the conviction and sentence issued against each of these individuals.


Before the group trial had started, state media aired the defendants’ forced “confessions” and described them as “murderers”, in breach of their rights to presumption of innocence and freedom from torture and other cruel, inhumane and degrading treatment.



10. HOSSEIN MOHAMMADI


On 5 December 2022, a Revolutionary Court in Alborz province sentenced young actor Hossein Mohammadi to death after convicting him of “corruption on earth” (efsad-e fel arz) in connection with the fatal assault of a Basij agent during protests about a month earlier on 3 November. The court convicted him less than a week after the beginning of a fast-tracked unfair sham group trial on 30 November 2022 which bore no resemblance to a judicial proceeding.

Four other co-defendants were also sentenced to death in connection with the same fatal assault. The authorities did not reveal their names, but information gathered by Amnesty International indicates that they include Hamid Ghare-Hasalou (entry No. 7), Mohammad Mehdi Karami (entry No. 8) and Sayed Mohammad Hosseini (entry No. 9). The identity of the fifth co-defendant sentenced to death remains unclear to Amnesty International (entry No.11). Based on publicly available information on sentences against a number of defendants in the case, he could be one of the following people who underwent the group trial: Reza Arya, Mehdi Mohammadi, Shayan Charani, Mohammad Amin Akhlaghi, Reza Shaker Zavardahi, Javad Zargaran or Behrad Ali Kenari. The Iranian authorities must immediately clarify the conviction and sentence issued against each of these individuals.


Before the group trial had started, state media aired the defendants’ forced “confessions” and described them as “murderers”, in breach of their rights to presumption of innocence and freedom from torture and other cruel, inhumane and degrading treatment.



11. UNNAMED INDIVIDUAL – ALBORZ PROVINCE


The authorities did not reveal the names of the individuals they have sentenced to death in a group trial before a Revolutionary Court in Alborz province in connection with the fatal assault of a Basij agent during protests about a month earlier on 3 November. Information gathered by Amnesty International indicates that they include Hamid Ghare-Hasalou (entry No. 7), Mohammad Mehdi Karami (entry No. 8), Seyed Mohammad Hosseini (entry No. 9) and Hossein Mohammadi (entry No.10). The identity of the fifth co-defendant sentenced to death remains unclear to Amnesty International. Based on publicly available information on the sentences against a number of individuals who underwent the group trial, he could be one of the following people: Reza Arya, Mehdi Mohammadi, Shayan Charani, Mohammad Amin Akhlaghi, Reza Shaker Zavardahi, Javad Zargaran or Behrad Ali Kenari.


The Iranian authorities must immediately clarify the conviction and sentence issued against each of these individuals and quash any death sentences issued.


INDIVIDUALS WHO HAVE UNDERGONE TRIALS ON CAPITAL CHARGES AND MAY BE UNDER SENTENCES OF DEATH


12. SAEED SHIRAZI


Saeed Shirazi was brought before a Revolutionary Court for an unfair sham group trial on 29 October. The prosecution authorities accused him of “corruption on earth” (efsad-e fel arz) through “widespread incitement and encouragement of people to commit crimes against national security” and “causing severe disruptions in [public] order” and sought the death penalty against him.


According to Mizan Online, Saeed Shirazi maintained his innocence in court and denied the charges against him. Mizan Online has reported that during the trial session on 29 October 2022, the presiding judge claimed that most of the content posted by Saeed Shirazi on social media related to “trainings on making hand-made grenades” and included “insults” and cited this as “evidence” against him.


The case of Saeed Shirazi was joined together with that of five other men and referred to a Revolutionary Court in Tehran for a group trial. Three of them, Mohammad Boroughani (No. 4), Mohammad Ghobadlou (No. 5 above) and Saman Seydi (Yasin) (No. 6 above) have since been sentenced to death. The fate of Saeed Shirazi and the other two men, Abolfazl Mehri Hossein Hajilou (No. 13) and Mohsen Rezazadeh Gharagholou (No. 14) remains unclear.


The court conducting the group trial was presided by the head of Branch 15 of the Revolutionary Court, Abolghasem Salavati, but it remains unclear if Branch 15 conducted the trial or a special court was set up by the authorities in response to the protests. The official banner appearing behind the judge identifies the body conducting the group trial as the “court for dealing with the charges against recent rioters”. This banner reveals the highly biased position towards the defendants and undermines their presumption of innocence.


13. ABOLFAZL MEHRI HOSSEIN HAJILOU


Abolfazl Mehri Hossein Hajilou was brought before a Revolutionary Court for an unfair sham group trial on 29 October 2022. According to reports published by Mizan Online, during the trial session, the presiding judge accused Abolfazl Mehri Hossein Hajilou of having set fire to 25 rubbish bins during protests that took place in Tehran province. Under Note 1 to Article 675 of Iran’s Islamic Penal Code, acts of arson carried out with “intent to confront the Islamic government” must be punished as “enmity against God” (moharebeh), which means they may be punishable by death.


Reports published by Mizan Online raise concerns that the prosecution authorities sought the death penalty for Abolfazl Mehri Hossein Hajilou on this basis, saying that he “confronted the Islamic system through committing arson against public property in order to cause disruptions in the country’s order and security.”


The case of Abolfazl Mehri Hossein Hajilou was joined together with that of five other men and referred to a Revolutionary Court in Tehran for a group trial on 29 October. Three of them, Mohammad Boroughani (entry No. 4), Mohammad Ghobadlou (entry No. 5) and Saman Seydi (Yasin) (entry No. 6) have since been sentenced to death. The fate of Abolfazl Mehri Hossein Hajilou and two other men; namely, Saeed Shirazi (entry No. 12) and Mohsen Rezazadeh Gharagholou (entry No. 14), remains unclear.


The court conducting the group trial on 29 October was presided over by the head of Branch 15 of the Revolutionary Court, Abolghasem Salavati, but it remains unclear if Branch 15 conducted the trial or a special court was set up by the authorities in response to the protests. The official banner appearing behind the judge identifies the body conducting the group trial as the “court for dealing with the charges against recent rioters”. This banner reveals the highly biased position towards the defendants and undermines their presumption of innocence.



14. MOHSEN REZAZADEH GHARAGHOLOU



Mohsen Rezazadeh Gharagholou was brought before a Revolutionary Court for an unfair sham group trial on 29 October 2022. The authorities have charged him with “enmity against God” (moharebeh) through “participation in [acts of] arson against public property in order to cause disruption in public order and security”, “gathering and colluding to commit crimes against national security”, “making explosives in the form of Molotov cocktails for [committing acts] against security,” and “throwing stones at police forces.” Apart from the charges cited, Mizan Online and other state media have not disclosed any further details regarding his case.


The case of Mohsen Rezazadeh Gharagholou was joined together with that of five other men and referred to a Revolutionary Court in Tehran for a group trial on 29 October. Three of them, Mohammad Boroughani (No. 4), Mohammad Ghobadlou (entry No. 5) and Saman Seydi (Yasin) (entry No. 6) have since been sentenced to death. The fate of Mohsen Rezazadeh Gharagholou and two other men; namely, Saeed Shirazi (entry No. 12) and Abolfazl Mehri Hossein Hajilou (entry No. 13), remains unclear.


The court conducting the group trial on 29 October was presided over by the head of Branch 15 of the Revolutionary Court, Abolghasem Salavati, but it remains unclear if Branch 15 conducted the trial or a special court was set up by the authorities in response to the protests. The official banner appearing behind the judge identifies the body conducting the group trial as the “court for dealing with the charges against recent rioters”. This banner reveals the highly biased position towards the defendants and undermines their presumption of innocence.



INDIVIDUALS CHARGED WITH CAPITAL OFFENCES AND AWAITING OR UNDERGOING TRIAL


15. AKBAR GHAFARI


Akbar Ghafari has been charged with “enmity against god” (moharebeh) in connection with the death of a security agent.


Authorities arrested Akbar Ghafari after he sheltered protesters at his sister’s home in Tehran. According to a prisoner who was briefly detained alongside him in Evin prison, Akbar Ghafari, who is unable to read, was forced under torture to sign a statement, which he later discovered falsely incriminated him in the killing. At the time of writing, he was detained incommunicado in the Greater Tehran Penitentiary, also known as Fashafouyeh prison.



16. TOOMAJ SALEHI


Dissident rapper Toomaj Salehi was arrested in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province on 31 October 2022. The authorities have charged him with “enmity against God” (moharebeh) and “corruption on earth” (efsad-e fel arz) in connection with critical music and social media posts, which denounced the unjust practices of the Islamic Republic establishment and called for freedom and human rights for the people of Iran. His case has been sent to the Revolutionary Court in Esfahan. According to an informed source, he has been tortured in detention.



17. EBRAHIM RIGI (RIKI)


Ebrahim Rigi (Riki), a 24-year-old man from the oppressed Baluchi minority, was arrested in Zahedan, Sistan and Baluchistan province on 13 October 2022. According to Baluchi human rights defenders, the authorities have charged him with vague and broadly worded offences carrying the death penalty including “corruption on earth” (efsad-e fel arz) and/or “enmity against God” (moharabeh) for allegedly leading the protests in Zahedan.



18. AMIR NASRAZADANI


Amir Nasr Azadani, a professional footballer, was arrested in Esfahan on 18 November 2022. The Iranian authorities have accused him and four other people of involvement in an “armed group” allegedly responsible for the death of three security officials during protests in Esfahan on 16 November.

On 11 December 2022, the head of the department of justice in Esfahan stated that Amir Nasr Azadani has been charged with “armed rebellion against the state” (baghi), which is punishable by the death penalty. The official added that Amir Nasr Azadi had joined “unlawful groups with the intention of disrupting national security and gathering and colluding to commit crimes against security” and said that these acts amount to “aiding enmity against God”.


According to official announcements, the case of Amir Nasr Azadani and his four co- defendants has been referred to a Revolutionary Court for trial. According to information gathered by human rights activists, two of the co-defendants are Saleh Mirhashemi (entry No. 19) and Saeed Yaghoubi (entry No. 20). The other two remain unidentified.


In breach of the right to presumption of innocence, on 11 December 2022 in an interview with state media, the head of the department of justice in Esfahan pronounced Amir Nasr Azadani guilty saying “the accused has unequivocally confessed to his criminal actions” and “there exists sufficient evidence establishing his participation in the armed group.”



19. SALEH MIRHASHEMI


Saleh Mirhashemi was arrested in Esfahan in mid-November 2022. The Iranian authorities have accused him and four other people of involvement in an “armed group” allegedly responsible for the death of three security officials during protests in Esfahan on 16 November. According to information gathered by human rights activists, two of the co-defendants are Amir Nasr Azadani (No. 4 above) and Saeed Yaghoubi (entry No. 18). The other two remain unidentified.


There are no details available on the charges brought against Saleh Mirhashemi. However, on 11 December 2022, the head of the department of justice in Esfahan announced that Amir Nasr Azadi, one of Saleh Mirhashemi’s co-defendants, has been charged with the capital offence of “armed rebellion against the state” (baghi). This raises serious concerns that Saleh Mirhashemi has been similarly charged with offences carrying the death penalty.



20. SAEED YAGHOUBI


Saeed Yaghoubi was arrested in Esfahan in mid-November 2022. The Iranian authorities have accused him and four other people of involvement in an “armed group” allegedly responsible for the death of three security officials during protests in Esfahan on 16 November. According to information gathered by human rights activists, two of the co-defendants are Amir Nasr Azadani (entry No. 18) and Saleh Mirhashemi (entry No. 5 19). The other two remain unidentified.


There are no details available on the charges brought against Saeed Yaghoubi. However, on 11 December 2022, the head of the department of justice in Esfahan announced that Amir Nasr Azadi, one of Sayeed Yaghoubi’s co-defendants, has been charged with the capital offence of “armed rebellion against the state” (baghi). This raises serious concerns that Saeed Yaghoubi has been similarly charged with offences carrying the death penalty.


In addition to the individuals listed above, on 14 December 2022, Amnesty International learned from a human rights defender, who is based outside Iran and in contact with affected individuals, that another six men from Iran’s Kurdish minority are charged with “enmity against god” (moharabeh) and awaiting trials in connection to the protests in West Azerbaijan province. They include brothers Farzad (Farzin) Tahazadeh and Farhad Tahazadeh, Karwan Shahiparvaneh, Reza Eslamdoost, Hajar Hamidi and Shahram Marouf-Mola. The organization is continuing its investigations into their cases.


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